A drainage basin is any area of land where precipitation collects and drains off into a common outlet, such as into a river, bay, or other body of water. Catchment factors are: topography, shape, size, soil type, and land use (paved or roofed areas). A drainage basin is the area of land that it drained by a river and its tributaries. "Catchment basin" redirects here. Drainage patterns. When it rains, water falls on all surfaces, not just in the waterways. Catchment topography and shape determine the time taken for rain to reach the river, while catchment size, soil type, and development determine the amount of water to reach the river. The boundary between the drainage basins is a drainage division of all precipitation on the opposite sides of a drainage division will flow into several drainage basins. Land use can contribute to the volume of water reaching the river, in a similar way to clay soils. A portion of the water that enters the groundwater system beneath the drainage basin may flow towards the outlet of another drainage basin because groundwate… River basins geography myp gcse dp the shape of watersheds nature what is a river basin inter geography drainage basin hydrological system a what are the differences between Drainage Basins Definition Characteristics Lesson Transcript StudyWhat Is A River Basin QuoraWhat Are The Differences Between Catchment Area River Basin Watershed Mand Drainage QuoraKentucky Water Resources Research… An extreme example of this is the Dead Sea. The isohyetal method involves contours of equal precipitation are drawn over the gauges on a map. The boundary between drainage basins is a drainage divide: all the precipitation on opposite sides of a drainage divide will flow into different drainage basins. water from rain converge or drain to a single point usually of lower elevation The minerals are carried by the drainage basin to the mouth, and may accumulate there, disturbing the natural mineral balance. Information and translations of drainage basin in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web. If you live somewhere that gets a lot of rain or snow, has runoff from streets, or simply experience a lot of sitting water, a catch basin could help. Shape will contribute to the speed with which the runoff reaches a river. The boundary of the drainage basin is called a drainage divide. Rain gauge data is used to measure total precipitation over a drainage basin, and there are different ways to interpret that data. Each drainage basin is separated topographically from adjacent basins by a ridge, hill or mountain, which is known as a water divide or a watershed. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). It includes water found in the water table and su… Measurement of the discharge of water from a basin may be made by a stream gauge located at the basin's outlet. The drainage basin acts as a funnel by collecting all the water within the area covered by the basin and channelling it to a single point. It can flow directly into the river or go through tributaries (smaller rivers that flow into the bigger river) first. It lies west of the Continental Divide and extends from the boundary of Alberta and British Columbia into the Yukon near the Mackenzie Delta. Some streams, notably in Finland and from southern Poland to west-central Russia, have their sources in hills of Cenozoic rocks,…, …is on subsurface runoff (or drainage). There are no inputs or outputs.The drainage basin hydrological system is a local open system. For example, the total area drained by the Mississippi River constitutes its drainage basin, whereas that part of the Mississippi River drained by the Ohio River is the Ohio’s drainage basin. If the gauges are many and evenly distributed over an area of uniform precipitation, using the arithmetic mean method will give good results. This can cause eutrophication where plant growth is accelerated by the additional material. In New Zealand, they are called catchment boards. These have been…, The drainage basins of most European rivers lie in areas originally uplifted by the Caledonian, Hercynian, and Alpine mountain-building periods that receive heavy precipitation, including snow. Modern use of artificial fertilizers, containing nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium, has affected the mouths of drainage basins. What is a watershed and why should I care? This type of water is r… A drainage basin is a naturally occurring extent of land which serves as a funnel to channel precipitation and excess water to a nearby river or stream. Soil type will help determine how much water reaches the river. Learn more. As water flows over the ground and along rivers it can pick up nutrients, sediment, and pollutants. Other terms for drainage basin are catchment area, catchment basin, drainage area, river basin, water basin,[3] [4] and impluvium. For example, rainfall on roofs, pavements, and roads will be collected by rivers with almost no absorption into the groundwater. Catch basins are made to redirect water away from another place in an attempt to stop flooding before it starts. All water that falls on that land flows into one river. This system is a closed system. Drainage basin, also called catchment area, or (in North America) watershed, area from which all precipitation flows to a single stream or set of streams. The drainage basin - as stated earlier - is an example of an open system, and many of the terms above are central to it. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. A drainage basin is an extent or an area of land where surface water from rain and melting snow or ice converges to a single point, usually the exit of the basin, where the waters join another waterbody, such as a river, lake, reservoir, estuary, wetland, sea, or ocean. The drainage basin, also known as the basin, or (in North America) the basin that pours all precipitation into a single torrent or a set of streams. Comparable community groups based in Ontario, Canada, are called conservation authorities. However, soils containing clay can be almost impermeable and therefore rainfall on clay soils will run off and contribute to flood volumes. They are also known as catchments, catchment basins, watersheds, or water basins. [ drā ′nĭj ] An area drained by a river system. A drainage basin (sometimes called a catchment basin) is basically a heavy duty box that comes in various sizes with a slotted lid. Isochrone maps can be used to show the time taken for runoff water within a drainage basin to reach a lake, reservoir or outlet, assuming constant and uniform effective rainfall.[10][11][12][13]. The largest drainage basin in the world is the Amazon, covering 6,144,727 km²(a third of the area of South America). Rain that falls in steep mountainous areas will reach the primary river in the drainage basin faster than flat or lightly sloping areas (e.g., > 1% gradient). Commonly used to catch storm water runoff to be piped underground to some more desirable location (Note: your neighbors lawn should not be considered a more desirable location unless the objective is to get them to hate you). The climatic variables and the water and sediment discharge, water storage, and evapotranspiration may be measured; from these measurements, denudation rates and moisture and energy balances may be derived, each of which is useful in the consideration and understanding of landscape formation. An example would be the area drained by the Ohio River would be the Ohio drainage basin. Limnologists have used several criteria for the development of systems for classifying lakes and lake basins but have resorted particularly to the mechanisms that have produced lake basins. Accordant versus discordant drainage patterns. For example, the English crown gave the Hudson's Bay Company a monopoly on the fur trade in the entire Hudson Bay basin, an area called Rupert's Land. The runoff from the drainage area is dependent on the soil type.Certain soil types such as sandy soils are very free-draining, and rainfall on sandy soil is likely to be absorbed by the ground. Water is continuously transferred between the atmosphere and the oceans. Because drainage basins are coherent entities in a hydro-logical sense, it has become common to manage water resources on the basis of individual basins. Hello guys here is our rivers education revision video, we hope you guys like it.Thankyou The three rivers that drain the most water, from most to least, are the Amazon, Ganga, and Congo rivers.[9]. A drainage basin includes all areas that gather precipitation water and direct it to a particular stream, stream system, lake, or other body of … The drainage basin includes all the surface water from rain runoff, snowmelt, hail, sleet and nearby streams that run downslope towards the shared outlet, as well as the groundwater underneath the earth's surface. A drainage system is described as accordant if its pattern correlates to … In the U.S. state of Minnesota, governmental entities that perform this function are called "watershed districts". Drainage basins are the principal hydrologic unit considered in fluvial geomorphology. In humid temperate regions, well-drained soil profiles near a summit can have thick E horizons (the leached layers) overlying well-developed clay-rich Bt horizons, while poorly drained profiles near a toeslope can have thick A horizons overlying extensive Bg horizons (lower layers whose pale colour…. This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/science/drainage-basin, USGS Water Science School - Watersheds and Drainage Basins. Other terms that are used to describe a drainage basin are catchment, catchment area, catchment basin, drainage area, river basin and water basin. drainage basin - the entire geographical area drained by a river and its tributaries; an area characterized by all runoff being conveyed to the same outlet; "flood control in the Missouri basin" catchment area , catchment basin , drainage area , river basin , watershed , basin Management of such basins becomes the responsibility of the countries sharing it. Size will help determine the amount of water reaching the river, as the larger the catchment the greater the potential for flooding. It is also determined on the basis of length and width of the drainage basin. De très nombreux exemples de phrases traduites contenant "drainage basin" – Dictionnaire français-anglais et moteur de recherche de traductions françaises. Synonyms for drainage basin include watershed, catchment area, catchment basin, drainage area and catchment. [1] Drainage basins connect into other drainage basins at lower elevations in a hierarchical pattern, with smaller sub-drainage basins, which in turn drain into another common outlet.[2]. In most cases, a small stream will lead to a bigger stream, which will then lead to a river, and finally an open body of water. Examples of such interstate compacts are the Great Lakes Commission and the Tahoe Regional Planning Agency. A portion of the water that enters the groundwater system beneath the drainage basin may flow towards the outlet of another drainage basin because groundwater flow directions do not always match those of their overlying drainage network. The following is a list of the major ocean basins: The five largest river basins (by area), from largest to smallest, are the basins of the Amazon (7M km2), the Congo (4M km2), the Nile (3.4M km2), the Mississippi (3.22M km2), and the Río de la Plata (3.17M km2). Per the lie of channels, drainage systems can fall into one of several categories, known as drainage patterns.These depend on the topography and geology of the land.. All forms of transitions can occur between parallel, dendritic, and trellis patterns. Corrections? Endorheic drainage basins are inland basins that do not drain to an ocean. In a strict sense, all drainage basins are hydrologic units but not all hydrologic units are drainage basins.[8]. Below is a flow diagram of the drainage basin system:All rivers receive a water supply and the area of land this comes from is known as a drainage basin. Cycleau - A project looking at approaches to managing catchments in North West Europe, flash animation of how rain falling onto the landscape will drain into a river depending on the terrain, StarHydro – software tool that covers concepts of fluvial geomorphology and watershed hydrology, Florida Watersheds and River Basins - Florida DEP, List of rivers that have reversed direction, A Directory of Important Wetlands in Australia, Bangladesh Haor and Wetland Development Board, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Drainage_basin&oldid=991247644, Articles with dead external links from December 2017, Articles with permanently dead external links, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from January 2017, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, About 48.7% of the world's land drains to the, Just over 13% of the land in the world drains to the, This page was last edited on 29 November 2020, at 02:15. This is known as the global hydrological cycle. Forums pour discuter de drainage basin, voir ses formes composées, des exemples et poser vos questions. In hydrology, the drainage basin is a logical unit of focus for studying the movement of water within the hydrological cycle, because the majority of water that discharges from the basin outlet originated as precipitation falling on the basin. Drainage basins are similar but not identical to hydrologic units, which are drainage areas delineated so as to nest into a multi-level hierarchical drainage system. A drainage catch basin is basically a storm drain for your backyard (or anywhere it is needed). Some of these, such as the Great Basin, are not single drainage basins but collections of separate, adjacent closed basins. With the water, they are transported towards the outlet of the basin, and can affect the ecological processes along the way as well as in the receiving water source. Bioregional political organization today includes agreements of states (e.g., international treaties and, within the US, interstate compacts) or other political entities in a particular drainage basin to manage the body or bodies of water into which it drains. This includes water from rain and melting snow. Especially in North American usage however, watershed refers to the drainage basin itself. Other endorheic regions include the Great Basin in the United States, much of the Sahara Desert, the drainage basin of the Okavango River (Kalahari Basin), highlands near the African Great Lakes, the interiors of Australia and the Arabian Peninsula, and parts in Mexico and the Andes. Around 18% of all land drains to endorheic lakes or seas or sinks. All of these waterways are connected and rely on precipitation to flow properly. Formulation", Instructional video: Manual watershed delineation is a five-step process, Instructional video: To delineate a watershed you must identify land surface features from topographic contours, Water Evaluation And Planning System (WEAP) - modeling hydrologic processes in a drainage basin, New Mexico State University - Water Task Force, Watershed Condition Classification Technical Guide. In a closed drainage basin, or endorheic basin, the water converges to a single point inside the basin, known as a sink, which may be a permanent lake, a dry lake, or a point where surface water is lost underground.[8]. A drainage basin is any area of land where precipitation collects and drains off into a common outlet, such as into a river, bay, or other body of water. Find more similar words at wordhippo.com! If the surface is impermeable the precipitation will create surface run-off which will lead to higher risk of flooding; if the ground is permeable, the precipitation will infiltrate the soil. It is an area of land. drainage basin meaning: 1. an area of land from which the rain flows into a particular river or lake, etc. Drainage basin, also called catchment area, or (in North America) watershed, area from which all precipitation flows to a single stream or set of streams. A drainage basin provides a limited surface area within which physical processes pertinent to the general hydrology may be considered. [5][6][7] In North America, the term watershed is commonly used to mean a drainage basin, though in other English-speaking countries, it is used only in its original sense, that of a drainage divide. drainage basin. In the Thiessen polygon method, the drainage basin is divided into polygons with the rain gauge in the middle of each polygon assumed to be representative for the rainfall on the area of land included in its polygon. The name given to the study of lakes is limnology. ", "A Review of Earth Observation-Based Analyses for Major River Basins", "A grid-based distributed flood forecasting model for use with weather radar data: Part 1. A drainage basin is the area of land that it drained by a river and its tributaries. The drainage basin includes all the surface water from rain runoff, snowmelt, hail, sleet and nearby streams that run downslope towards the shared outlet, as well as the groundwater underneath the earth's surface.
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