2:20–21; cf. Says he comes from God, is sent by him, and has a commission from him to say so. Later, Christians apparently interpreted the passage in Deuteronomy 18 as the promise of a single messianic prophet at end time that they would identify with Jesus (John 1:21, 24, 45; 6:14; 7:40–41; Acts 3:22; 7:37). The Prophet is described in the terms of Deuteronomy 5:28–29 and 18:18–19—a prophet “like Moses.” 13 The King is described in terms of Balaam’s prophecy in Numbers 24:17: “A star rises from Jacob, A scepter arises from Israel.” 14 And the Priest is described in terms of Deuteronomy 33:8–11 “And of Levi he said: Let your Thummim and Urim Be with Your faithful one.” Biblical scholars argue whether this prophecy was meant to refer to the continuation of the institution in general fulfilled by a variety of future prophets or to a specific, future individual [Page 266]prophet. Here is a caution against false prophets. “A Prophet Like Moses” (Deuteronomy 18:15–18) in the Book of Mormon, the Bible, and the Dead Sea Scrolls, Complexities in the English Language of the Book of Mormon — 2015, Moses 1 in Its Ancient Context (#31 – 42), https://interpreterfoundation.org/books/to-seek-the-law-of-the-lord-essays-in-honor-of-john-w-welch-2/, Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License. [Page 274]From the beginning many scholars advanced the idea that the Teacher of Righteousness could be identified as a prophet, and specifically as the prophet “like Moses.”20 The main objection to this idea is that the Teacher of Righteousness is never specifically called a “prophet” (nabi’) in any of the texts. Deuteronomy 18:18 - I will raise them up a Prophet from among their brethren, like unto thee, and will put my words in his mouth; and he shall speak unto them all that I … It highly concerns us to have a right touchstone wherewith to try the word we hear, that we may know what that word is which the Lord has not spoken. A passage in Ben Sira (48:10) refers to Malachi when it talks of the future coming of Elijah to calm the wrath of God in order to restore Israel: “At the appointed time, it is written, you [Elijah] are destined to calm the wrath of God before it breaks out in fury, to turn the hearts of parents to their children, and to restore the tribes of Jacob.”. (1-6) Release of debts every seventh year. Laws regulating murder, marriage and delinquent sons, Deu 21. This prophet is come, even JESUS; and is "He that should come," and we are to look for no other. Deuteronomy Chapter 18 Summary. Such pairs include Moses and Aaron, Aaron and Israel, Solomon and Zadok, the two “sons of oil” Jeshua and Zerubbabel, and later Bar Kochba and the High Priest Eleazar.16, Related to the prophet like Moses figure, a passage found in the Damascus Document identifies an important individual who will come as an eschatological teacher. The nations in the land before them had abominable forms that … The first sermon recorded in chapters 1 to 4 reminded the people of where they came from. The Hebrew words for “teach” and “righteousness” yoreh hatsedek here are the same words used in the title Teacher of Righteousness Moreh Hatsedek and describes a figure who will, like Moses, and the Teacher of Righteousness before him, continue to teach righteousness. Elsewhere, a passage in Philo does allude to the prophet like Moses talked about in Deuteronomy 18:15–18. 22:21). 4:14) is reminiscent of the language and theology of Deuteronomy (cf. They became prophetic leaders and lawgivers to their people, and constantly reiterated the blessings and curses of the covenant, similar to those in Deuteronomy, associated with the promised land. They were told that the Levite priests and the rest of the tribe were not to have any of the inheritance allotted to Israel. The allusion to a prophet “like Moses” in verses 15–18 evokes all of the characteristics known of Moses through the biblical text: leader, lawgiver, teacher, worker of miracles, and one who received revelation and spoke with the Lord “face to face.” The Damascus Document talks of an eschatological teacher who would teach “righteousness” before the end. When you come into the land which the LORD your God is giving you, you shall not learn to follow the abominations of those nations. Was it possible that a people so blessed with Divine institutions, should ever be in any danger of making those their teachers whom God had made their captives? Care is taken that the priests entangle not themselves with the affairs of this life, nor enrich themselves with the wealth of this world; they have better things to mind. A 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization. (1QS IX, 9–11)10. As evidence that the Teacher of Righteousness was portrayed with the qualities and functions attributed to biblical prophets we can identify passages in the Damascus Document and in the Pesharim. Deuteronomy 18:22. Commentary on Deuteronomy 18:15-22 (Read Deuteronomy 18:15-22) It is here promised concerning Christ, that there should come a Prophet, great above all the prophets; by whom God would make known himself and his will to the children of men, more fully and clearly than he had ever done before. Are you Elijah?’ He said, ‘I am not.’ ‘Are you the prophet?’ He answered, ‘No.’” Later rabbinic traditions (b. Sanh 118a; b. Further information at https://interpreterfoundation.org/books/to-seek-the-law-of-the-lord-essays-in-honor-of-john-w-welch-2/.]. Its name means second law. This fits well with the fact that since Elijah did not die but was taken into heaven he would be able to return (2 Kings 2:11). Regulations of the institution of slavery and the procedure for freeing slaves (Deuteronomy 15:12–18). However, throughout Deuteronomy and the rest of the Bible, Moses is [Page 267]called by titles referencing prophets: “the servant of the Lord” (Deut. So while the idea that the prophet like Moses was a specific future individual is attested in inter-testamental literature including the Dead Sea Scrolls, the identification of this prophet as the Messiah seems to be distinctive to Matthew and the New Testament. Previously: deuteronomy 18:1-8, authority of the levites (Please review the teaching tools of scripture, especially the Hebrew paragraph divisions and chiastic structures. Reflecting the emphasis in the Dead Sea Scrolls on the messianic figures over the future prophet much has been written about the significance and identification of the two messianic figures.19 Let us look at some texts from Qumran that describe the prophet, and the possible candidates of this figure, to develop a list of similar epithets and characteristics of the future prophet like Moses to see if a possible identification of who this prophet was thought to be is possible. Thus God, having raised up his Son Christ Jesus, sent him to bless us. The role of the “prophet like Moses” is also specifically mentioned in Testimonia accompanied by the reference in Deuteronomy. 1. After unleavened bread, Israel was to count seven weeks and the day after the seventh Sabbath was the feast of weeks or Pentecost. Elsewhere in the Bible, many are called by the title of “prophet” and a passage such as Hosea 12:11–14 refers to a succession of prophets following Moses. Moses gave a history of Israel and how God led them out of Egypt. They shall govern themselves using the original precepts by which the men of the Yahad began to be instructed, doing so until there come the Prophet and the Messiahs of Aaron and Israel. 3:22–23; [English 4:4–5]). In terms of the identification of the Teacher of Righteousness as the eschatological prophet “like Moses,” or even in his priestly office as the eschatological teacher, a further problem is that the texts were written and transmitted within the time period, either directly before, during, or after his lifetime and there is no indication that he was the forerunner of the two eschatological messiahs. Deuteronomy is the last book of the Pentateuch. The people must provide for them. So who are these figures and what is the relationship between them? This prophet would receive and deliver the word of the Lord, would establish the new laws, and would precede the coming of the two messiahs. Additionaly, Abinadi, as a synopsis of the law of Moses, delivered the Ten Commandments to Noah’s priests.32. Elsewhere in the Qumran texts the king and the priest are called by other titles. Summary of Deuteronomy Chapter 18 The Levite, in turn, was to minister to that person when Israel entered the land that God prepared for them; they were not to learn and do the customs of the nations that were there. It was also a summary of the book of Numbers—the experiences the people had because of refusing to trust the Lord. He speaks with fatherly affection and Divine authority united. 33:1; Josh. C. Regulations for domestic and personal relations, Deu 22-26. Brooke concludes that the question of whether the Teacher of Righteousness could be considered a prophet can be answered with a qualified “yes” or a qualified “no,” but it is very unlikely that he was the eschatological prophet like Moses. A passage from the Gospel of John demonstrates that in the first century there was the idea of a future prophet and a Messiah as is also attested in the Qumran texts. The passage found in the Damascus Document that identifies the eschatological teacher has also been interpreted as a reference to the Teacher of Righteousness. Debts are to be released in the seventh year (Deuteronomy 15:1–11). This paper surveys the variety of interpretations of the pronouncement in Deuteronomy 18 beginning with the Hebrew Bible and ending with the Christian interpretation in Acts, with a focus on the rich traditions preserved in the Dead Sea Scrolls in order to consider how the Book of Mormon and New Testament identification of the prophet as Christ fit into these traditions. ( C) ’Eruv 43b) also relate the future coming of Elijah as related in Malachi. The New Testament followed by early Christian interpreters specifically identifies the prophet like Moses as the Messiah (Acts 3:17–26). © 2020 Christianity.com. The sectarian texts from Qumran place great emphasis on eschatology. He that has the benefit of solemn religious assemblies, ought to give help for the comfortable support of those that minister in such assemblies. DEUTERONOMY SUMMARY. Deuteronomy 18:22 "When a prophet speaketh in the name of the LORD, if the thing follow not, nor come to pass, that [is] the thing which the LORD hath not spoken, [but] the prophet hath spoken it presumptuously: thou shalt not be afraid of him." There is a passage in Deuteronomy 18:15–18 that speaks of a future prophet like Moses. (Deu 18:15-19) The promise of a true Prophet to come. (4Q175, 5–8)15. 14:6; Ps. Because the noun “prophet” (nabi’) is in the singular, at first glance it may seem that these passages are explicitly referring to a single future individual “like Moses.” However, read in context it seems more likely that “prophet” is meant in a collective sense, referring to the future succession of prophets, just as the singular “king” in 17:14–20 refers to the institution of kingship and a succession of kings, and “the Levite” in 18:6 refers to the institution and succession of Levites. 4:46; Philo, De specialibus legibus 1:64–65), Christians (John 1:21, 45; 6:14; 7:40; Acts 3:22; 7:37) and Muslims (who identify this prophet as Muhammad in the Quran 7:157) interpreted the singular reference to a prophet as a specific individual. This song describes the History that the Israelites had experienced. That this identification is also attested anciently in the Book of Mormon may be best explained by prophetic foresight. As noted by Brooke: “This was not done explicitly by him claiming the title ‘prophet,’ but in terms of how he projected himself indirectly as a new Moses, as a new Jeremiah, as imitating the prophetic servant of the Isaianic servant songs, and even in his very act of writing hymnic poetry that could be understood prophetically.”25, Even if the Teacher of Righteous was considered by the Community to be a prophet, it is strange that the term is never used about him. Survival Tip of the Day: If you just read Deuteronomy 17, 18 & 26, you’ll be able to answer the questions fairly quickly.. End Notes: My end notes will only cover the passages we are asked questions about.It is too much to … 14. The passage in 9:9–11 occurs in the text after the rules of the Community (Yahad) are given, and it says that the Community is to be governed by these rules until [Page 271]the coming of the three eschatological figures who will then apparently overturn the old rules and institute new ones. If read in conjunction with the passage in the Rule of the Community an argument could be made that the prophet who is to precede the two messiahs is the one to be the lawgiver for the new laws. All research and opinions provided on this site are the sole responsibility of their respective authors, and should not be interpreted as the opinions of the Board, nor as official statements of LDS doctrine, belief or practice. [Editor’s Note: Part of our book chapter reprint series, this article is reprinted here as a service to the LDS community. 12:7–8; Josh. As illustrated by the passages in the Rule of the Community and Testimonia the expectation of the Community at Qumran had the expectation of the coming of a future eschatological prophet “like Moses” as prophesied by Deuteronomy 18. The two messiahs—“anointed (ones) of Aaron and of Israel”—are mentioned elsewhere together in the Dead Sea Scrolls (CD 12:23; 14:19; 19:10–11; 20:1; 1QS 9:11) and scholars have argued that these two anointed ones—messiahs—are based on other similar models in [Page 273]scripture that include a spiritual and a political leader. While it is not clear if the three figures together, or one or another of them, will fulfill this role in the Rule of the Community, it seems apparent in Testimonia (4Q175), which was written in the same hand as 1QS, that this legal role is the role of the future prophet “like Moses” referred to in Deuteronomy. 1. 90:1). The passage reads: They shall deviate from none of the teachings of the Law, whereby they would walk in their willful heart completely. As it is actually repetition of the law already given there in Exodus, Leviticus and Numbers. The passage that is most often identified with the expectation of an eschatological prophet like Moses is found at the conclusion of the rules in the Rule of the Community (1QS) from Cave 1. Testimonia shifts the calling of a prophet like unto Moses as a reference to a succession of prophets into a single eschatological figure and defines one of his tasks to be a mediator of law. Because it appears to be written in the same scribal hand as 1QS, Testimonia is considered to be from the same time period with a similar point of view. Each of the sermons of Moses has a different focus and purpose. I summarised the Bible on Twitter between Aug 2010 and Nov 2013 - one tweet per chapter, one chapter per day. 1–4; Deut. They were in danger; therefore, after many like cautions, they are charged not to do after the abominations of the nations of Canaan. A provision respecting Levites. The following references of the NT mention Moses as author of Deuteronomy: Matthew 22:24 (Deuteronomy 25:5); Acts 3:22; Acts 7:37 (Deuteronomy 18:15-16); Hebrews 12:21 (Deuteronomy 9:19). 13. It is Narrative History and Law, although there is a Song from Moses just after he commissions Joshua. In particular, some of these interpretations read this passage as referring to an eschatological figure who would come in the end-time preceding the messiah or messiahs. 33).31 Likewise, Abinadi confronted King Noah with the same language Moses faced Pharaoh. From this description some have identified this eschatological teacher with the prophet “like Moses” and in particular with the Teacher of Righteousness. 17and lest you say in your heart, “My power and the might of my hand has gotten me this wealth.” 18But you shall remember Yahweh your God, for it is he who gives you power to get wealth; that he may establish his covenant which he swore to your fathers, as at this day. 34:5; Num. All content by The Interpreter Foundation, unless otherwise specified, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License. The passage reads: “When they heard these words, some in the crowd said, ‘This is really the prophet.’ Others said, ‘This is the Messiah’” (John 7:40–41). Testimonia is a short text composed of four units of citations of scripture, the first three providing a scriptural proof-text for each of [Page 272]the three anticipated eschatological figures: the prophet, the king, and the priest or Levite—the same three offices described in Deuteronomy 16–18 and referred to in the Rule of the Community 9:11. Summary of The Book of Deuteronomy Quick Overview of Deuteronomy. The prevailing view in the sectarian texts is that during the end time two messiahs will appear to lead the congregation.12 From these passages it is possible to learn much about these messianic figures. 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