Thus, Humayun would finally be free of his dangerous rivals, who had been an important link in his expulsion from India. BENGAL The name "Bengal" (or Bangla) comes from Vanga or Banga, the name of the ancient deltaic kingdom. In 1530, while on his deathbed at Agra, Babur named Humayan his successor. His son was Akbar, one of the most famous emperors in Mughal history.. Military campaigns. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. Humayun had shown little determination in bringing down his greatest rival. Kajol and Bachchu were Humayun Ahmed's pet names, used by family members. An excellent example of Mughal Architecture in India, Humayun’s Tomb in Delhi, was built in 16th century and is visited by millions of national and … Gujar…, Muslims His son was Akbar, one of the most famous emperors in Mughal history. Deficient in diplomacy, resolution, and noblesse oblige, Humayun was the knight-errant of the Moghul dynasty. In fact, both Humayun and Akbar took lessons in drawing. Humāyūn’s Tomb, one of the earliest extant examples of the garden tomb characteristic of Mughal-era architecture, situated in Delhi, India. That same year, after an interval of 15 years, Humayun reconquered the Punjab, Delhi, and Agra, and reoccupied the throne of Delhi. He was captured by Pakistani Army during the Liberation war of Bangladesh, in 1971. "Humayun https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/humayun, "Humayun Humayun was born in 6 March 1508 to Mughal Emperor Babur and Maham Begum in Kabul Afghanistan. He then besieged Chunar, held by the Afghan chief Sher Shah, but soon abandoned it. Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, 1984. Humayun inherited the hope rather than the fact of empire, because the Afghans and Rajputs were merely restrained but not reconciled to Mughal supremacy by the Mughal victories at Panipat (1526), Khanua (1527), and the Ghaghara (1529). It was to consist of a magnificent palace of seven stories, surrounded by delightful gardens and orchards of such elegance and beauty that its fame might draw the people from the remotest parts of the world. Here his valuable manuscripts were kept in safe custody; here Mir Sayyid Ali taught drawing to Akbar. Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA). Third, on reaching Gaur, Humayun had wasted more than eight months during which Sher Shah occupied the country from Teliagarhi to Kanauj. Interesting Facts About Humayun’s Tomb Humayun was the second Mughal emperor of India Humayun’s tomb was built in the mid-16 th century by Persian architect Mirak Mirza Ghiyas and commissioned by Haji Begum, the Persian-born senior wife of Humayun Humayun’s tomb is the best example of the early Mughal style of tomb architecture in Delhi Encyclopedia of World Biography. Humayun served as governor of Kabul for his father, returning to India shortly before Babur's death. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 1993. He was the son and successor of Babur, the founder of the Mughal dynasty. To increase the glory of his court, he heightened its ceremonial aspects, rituals meant to attract learned and pious men from adjacent countries. A Sur Afghan, Sher Shah, leader of the Afghan resistance to the Mughals, controlled Bihar. Eventually, Humayan would conquer his brothers. Within his own circle was Humayan's brother Kamran, who was consistently faithless. Meanwhile, Sher Shah reached the Punjab and sent his general in pursuit of Humayun, instructing him not to capture the emperor but to drive him out of India. Jahangir (AD 1605-1627) Fourth Mughal emperor Jahangir. Thi…, Humboldt and Bonpland's Landmark Expedition to the Spanish Colonies of South America (1799-1804), Humboldt State University: Narrative Description, https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/humayun, https://www.encyclopedia.com/international/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/humayun, Rise and Fall of the Ottoman Empire (Fourteenth to Seventeenth Centuries). Humayun's second reign lasted only seven months. MUSLIMS There has been an ongoing controversy for many decades regarding the ways in which Islam entered Indian civilization and culture. Second, he seems to have believed, until as late as the early months of 1539, that Sher Shah was a mere upstart and could easily be stopped. Rare, unown Facts about Mughal Empire (December 22, 2020). That same year, Sher Khan invaded and captured Bengal. Humayun had none of these advantages. Humāyūn inherited the hope rather than the fact of empire, because the Afghans and Rajputs were merely restrained but not reconciled to Mughal supremacy by the Mughal victories at Panipat (1526), Khanua (1527), and the Ghaghara (1529). GUJARAT A state in western India, Gujarat in 2001 had a population of 50.6 million and an area of 75,700 square miles (196,000 sq. It was also known as ‘Maqbaera-e-Humayun’ and was designed by Persian architects Mirak Mirza Ghiyas and his son, Sayyid Muhammad after his father died in the meantime. William Finch, an English merchant, came to see the tomb in 1611, he described in his article the inner beauty of the tomb, the canopy, the tomb and the artifacts on the walls. Encyclopedia.com. When the Afghans followed him, the emperor abandoned the city and hurried west to Lahore. ." Jahangir This may be unbelievable but yes, the person who rules big and small screens is actually a really shy person in reality. While in Sind in 1542, Humayun's wife gave birth to his son Akbar, the true founder of the Mughal empire. Jahangir was an amicable, libe…, Bengal Without suppressing the rising chief, Humayan accepted "a purely perfunctory submission" and allowed Sher Shah free scope to develop his resources and power. Although, he is an amazing actor and has achieved a lot with his great acting skill. Encyclopedia of India. He also demolished Hindu temples at Kalinjar. Akbar's son Jahangir executed the fifth … Among the first six Great Moghuls, the image of Humayun is that of the nonentity, the one obvious failure. The Legend of Anarkali. ." "Humayun Though it would prove to be highly injurious to his interests, he refused to attack fellow Muslims engaged in war with the Hindus. Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. Humayun was no different then earlier Delhi sultans, however, in his dealings with the Hindus. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list. Updates? Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Though on the defensive, Humayun managed to introduce some reforms. The loss of Kabul and Qandahar deprived Humayun of the most important recruiting grounds for the Moghul army. The son and successor of Bābur, who had founded the Mughal dynasty, Humāyūn ruled from 1530 to 1540 and again from 1555 to 1556. After 1536, Sher Shah claimed the resourceful and wealthy province of Bengal. But all the while, Humayun struggled to defend his dominion. Fun Facts about the name Humayun. Since Humayun had not had time to introduce reforms, it was now left to his 13-year-old son Akbar to fulfil his intentions, building an enduring administrative edifice on Babur, Sher Shah, and Humayan's foundations. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). . HUMAYUN (1508–1556), Mughal emperor (1530–1540, 1555–1556). Humayun was also known as opium addict. In this moment of crisis, Kamran blocked his brother Humayan's access to the Punjab and Kabul. Advanced History of India. Unfortunately, he had no grand strategy. The Indo-Persian contact, which Humayan stimulated and reinforced, was of far-reaching consequence in the history of Indian civilization. Humayun Saeed has been around for decades and there is no denying the fact that he has made a big name for himself. Interesting & Fun Facts About Humayun's Tomb Humayun’s tomb was commissioned by Humayun's wife, Hamida Banu Begum, in 1562 CE. When was the first name Humayun first recorded in the United States? Meanwhile, an Afghan soldier of fortune, Shēr Shah of Sūr, had consolidated his power in Bihar and Bengal. Following Chausa, the Muslim Sher Shah drove the Moghul Humayun to the west, defeating him again at Kanauj on the Ganges River in April 1540. Humayun was, in essence, an attractive dilettante, who found himself playing the role of empire builder during complicated and hazardous times. Did you know these ten interesting facts about Humayun’s tomb?. Humayan would live to regret it. With this Persian military assistance Humayun captured Kandahar in 1545, which he had promised to return to Persia, and Kabul in 1553, after three campaigns over an eight-year period against his brother Kamran. https://www.encyclopedia.com/international/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/humayun, "Humayun Having been defeated by Sher Shah Suri in … Humayun also added to the development of Moghul architecture. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. This step was necessary in order to put down Sikandar Sur whose army had swelled and who was carrying on expeditions in the Punjab. Encyclopedia.com. This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/biography/Humayun-Mughal-emperor. 22 Dec. 2020 . Encyclopedia.com. In one significant battle, Humayan defeated Hamid Khan, an Afghan chief. This was in contrast to the bigotry and persecution practiced by rulers in Persia and Turkey. Harper, 1971. His tomb in Delhi, built several years after his death, is the first of the great Mughal architectural masterpieces; it was designated a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1993. Corrections? When Humayun crossed the Indus River, Bairam Khan, the most efficient and faithful of his officers, joined him. His enemies were not Hindus but his own Muslims. But when, after long months of idleness, he at last assembled his army for a new campaign, it was not for the reconquest of the west, but to break the continually rising power and the dangerous ambitions of Sher Shah in the east. Many commanders from Qandahar came to help. . Encyclopedia of India. As a last name Humayun was the 76,275 th most popular name in 2010. "Humayun The second Moghul emperor, Humayun (1508-1556) lost and regained his kingdom to continue Moghul rule at the expense of Muslim rule in India. Encyclopedia of World Biography. □. One of the most widely told stories from the Mughal Era is the rag-to-riches … He ruled Afghanistan, Pakistan, and parts of northern India from 1530 to 1540. Encyclopedia of India. A New History of India. The most powerful of the Afghans, Sher Shah established himself as an independent ruler to challenge the Moghul rule. Humayun took advantage of this war and of the growing popular dissatisfaction with Sur rule due to famine, invading India. The tomb, designed by Persian architect Mirak Mirza Ghiyas, was the … On the suspicion that its raja was in sympathy with the Afghans, he besieged the fort of Kalinjar in Bundelkhand but had to withdraw to deal with the Afghan menace in the east. He rewarded his friends and supporters. Humayun had brought about his own downfall. Routledge, 1986. Humayun wanted to recreate the system, maintaining Sher Shah's village and district administration, while dividing the domain into provinces, each with its own capital. He followed him in his wanderings throughout his childhood and, at the age of 18, he was at his side during the battle of Pânipat (1526), a founding battle of the Mughal Empire. He inherited an empire in name only, appointing his four brothers governors of its provinces, The body of the emperor was buried in two different locations before being transported to Humayun’s tomb. km). In 1528 he received … The Hindustan (India), which Babur had bequeathed to Humayun was a magnificent but shaky inheritance. In his youth he participated in the Battle of Panipat in 1526 with which his father, Babur, began his conquest of India. Then he participated in the capture of Agraand was sent to pacify the valley of the Ganges, in the far east of the Empire. But his love of pleasure periodically got the better of his natural energy and good sense. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Shy Person; Humayun Saeed is a very shy person. In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Having no money, he could not give presents to the nobles on this happy occasion. More interested in opium and astrology than political power, the second Moghul ruler was challenged by his younger brothers and by Afghan generals, who had served under his father. Aware of this disintegration, Humayun was eager to return to India with newly recruited armies. Kulke, Hermann and Dietmar Rothermund. A landmark in the development of Mughal architecture, Humāyūn’s Tomb was commissioned in 1569, after the … gaining a decisive victory over the Afghans, he drove out Sultan Mahmud Lodi from Jaunpur. The Pakistani tv actor has been alive for 17,907 days or 429,768 hours. Notes Kulke and Rothermund: "His succession was by no means a foregone conclusion: according to Mughal custom all royal princes were equally entitled to inherit power, which led to many rivalries in later years when Mughal princes fought each other until the most competent, the most ruthless, or simply the luckiest ascended the throne.". Like his father, Babur, he lost his kingdom early but regained it with the aid of the Safavid dynastyof Persia, with additional territor… Compelled to quit the battlefield, Humayun fled to Agra. He then marched against Bahadur Shah in the west who was pursuing a policy of expansion. Instead of dealing with his enemies firmly one after another, he divided his forces, weakened them and wasted time in merry making. New Delhi: Viking, 1997. Several of them are on the first level terrace, known as “Dormitory of the Mughals”. The most difficult task was that of establishing a firm system of administration and winning the sympathy of the people. Humayun learned Turki, Arabic, and Persian. After his death, the empire was split into four parts ruled by different relatives, and his young son Firuz was murdered by his maternal uncle. At the time of Babur's death, Kamran treacherously took the Punjab and the Indus Valley. Jahangir (1569-1627), the fourth Mughal Emperor of India and patron of the arts, ruled for 22 years. The Last Spring: The Lives and Times of the Great Mughals. His father gave him military training and appointed him governor of Badakhashan at the age of 20.He proved his bravery as a young governor and fought at … #history #documtary Amazing Facts About Confuicous | Humayun Studio The tomb was built by a Persian architect named Mirak Mirza Ghiyuath. Second, he seems to have believed, until as late as the early months of 1539, that Sher Shah was a mere upstart and could easily be stopped. Oxford University Press, 1977. It was also the first structure to He ruled Afghanistan, Pakistan, and parts of northern India from 1530 to 1540. The History of India. Second, he seems to have believed, until as late as the early months of 1539, that Sher Shah was a mere upstart and could easily be stopped. He now appointed Akbar, his young son and heir apparent, governor of Punjab and assigned Akbar's private tutor, Bairam Khan, to assist him. ." He is currently 49 years old. Retrieved December 22, 2020 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/humayun. He isn’t only an ace performer on screen but he is also a really talented and intelligent producer who is heading not one but two leading production houses in the country. With all his weaknesses and failings, Humayun deserves a significant place in Indian history. It was a city in Fergana Valley, Uzbekistan. During his exile in Persia, Humayun's great rival Sher Shah, who had established a vast and powerful empire supported by a wise system of administration, died in 1545. He was the son of the previous emperor, Babur. Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Gascoigne, Bamber. Thus, Humayun had no choice but to make his way toward Sindh, beginning his march through the most inhospitable part of the country. But publicly he was known by his certificate name. He was also interested in mathematics, philosophy, and astrology. But he was not a bitter persecutor and followed no systematic policy of Hindu repression. Aesthetically inclined, he undertook in the early years of his reign, the building of a new "asylum of the wise and intelligent persons." Hardly had he reached Lahore when news came that the Afghans had taken the capital city of Agra. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list. Made by a Wife for her Husband. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Still surrounded by Afghan enemies, the supporters of the Sur dynasty, he had recovered only part of his dominion. He was the son of the previous emperor, Babur. Babur was born in Andijan. Subsequently, the young governor fought at Panipat and Khanua, two decisive battles in Indian history, and was granted jagir (landlordship) of Sambhal. Humāyūn, also called Nāṣir al-Dīn Muḥammad, (born March 6, 1508, Kabul [Afghanistan]—died January 1556, Delhi [India]), second Mughal ruler of India, who was more an adventurer than a … Third, on reaching Gaur, Humayun had wasted more than eight months during which Sher Shah occupied the country from Telia… There was now one advantage. though two of them, Kamran and Askari, combined to deprive him of the Punjab. . Humâyûn was born on March 17, 1508 in Kabul, during a period when his father, Bâbur, was trying to expand his kingdom. Eraly, Abraham. While growing up in Afghanistan, Humayan learned Turki, Arabic, and Persian and was interested in mathematics, philosophy, and astrology. Humāyūn became a homeless wanderer, seeking support first in Sindh, then in Marwar, and then in Sindh again; his famous son, Akbar, was born there in 1542. The other two brothers, Hindal and Askari, were weak and shifty tools in the hands of Humayun's opponents. Two days later, in the words of historian Lane-Poole, he "tumbled out of life as he had tumbled through it." He also failed to capture Sindh. © 2019 Encyclopedia.com | All rights reserved. He defeated Humāyūn at Chausa in 1539 and at Kannauj in 1540, expelling him from India. Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Born Nasin-ud-din Muhammad in Kabul, Afghanistan, Humayun was the second Mughal emperor of India. Like his father, he was free from sectarian bigotry and had little ill-will toward the Shia's. Nasiruddin Muhammad Humayun (6 March 1508 - 27 January 1556) was the second Mughal Emperor.. Nasir uddin Muhammad Humayun was the second Mughal emperor who ruled from 1530–1540. He invaded Gujarat in 1535, but it was brought under Mughal control only after the death of Bahadur Shah in 1537 at the hands of the Portuguese. There are more than 100 graves within the entire complex. Humayun's Tomb has been labeled as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO since 1993. Bairam Khan was then created Khan-Khanan, the lord of lords. Humayun was the second Mughal ruler of territories in the Indian subcontinent including what is now Afghanistan, Pakistan, and parts of northern India. He received an upbringing typical for princes of his stature. ." Humayun had brought about his own downfall. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. It was his birthday yesterday, November 13. During this time, Humayun selected sites for several observatories. In February of 1854, he occupied the Punjab, including Lahore, without any serious opposition. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates. Allied Publishers, 1970. While on his way to conquer Sindh with the help of Rana Virsala, a Hindu ruler, Humayan received the happy news of the birth of his son Akbar. The Moghul Empire. Here are thirteen unknown facts about the legendary writer to remember him once again. 22 Dec. 2020 . Narrowly escaping his brother's forces, Humayun reached Persia, where Shah Tahmasp offered him a hearty reception. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites: http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html. He became the Mughal emperor at the age of 23. Delhi's founding gave notice to the Muslim world that here was the capital of a new liberal empire where philosophers and poets of any Islamic sect would be welcome. Narrowly escaping his brother's forces, Humayun reached Persia, where Shah Tahmasp offered him a hearty reception. Structure of the Humanyun’s tomb. Jahangir According to Moghul historians, Sikander's armies were larger than the Moghuls, but the superior Moghul tactics gave Bairam Khan a resounding victory on June 22, 1555. In 1532 Humayun besieged him at Chunar but did not capture him. It became a magnificent court, worthy of a great Timurid sovereign. First, he should never have divided his kingdom among his treacherous brothers. The Great Moghuls. "Humayun To further train his son, the emperor Babur appointed him governor of Badakhashan at the age of 20. While all around there was frequent strife, its governor maintained Qandahar as the undisputed base of Moghul operations. But Sher Shah's son, Islam Shah could not keep his Afghan nobles in check. Humayun, while enjoying "his pleasure" in Agra, could only dream of the reconquest of the western kingdoms and the re-establishment of his glory. Humayun Ahmed was a Bangladeshi writer, playwright, screenwriter, and filmmaker. . place of birth. In 1535, with determination worthy of his father, Humayun defeated the Shah at Gujrat. He was exiled out of India for 15years by Sher Shah Suri who defeated him in two consecutive battles -Battle of Kanauj and Chausa. Retrieved December 22, 2020 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/international/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/humayun. The Humayun’s Tomb is a magnificent monumental structure situated in Old Delhi, India. With poetry almost the lingua franca of court life, discussions took place in the building called the Sher Mandal that was turned into a library. Shiva Lal Agarwala, 1964. Nasiruddin Muhammad Humayun (Persian: نصیر الدین محمد همایون; OS 7 March 1508 AD – OS 17 January 1556 AD) was the second Mughal Emperor.. In 1993 it was declared a UNESCO World Heritage site. (December 22, 2020). A History of India. Reaching Iran in 1544, Humāyūn was granted military aid by Shah Ṭahmāsp and went on to conquer (in what is now Afghanistan) Kandahār (1545) and to seize Kabul three times from his own disloyal brother, Kāmrān, the final time being in 1550. First, he should never have divided his kingdom among his treacherous brothers. Kamran would die in Arabia in 1557. Though the Moghuls were temporarily relieved of their most dangerous enemy in the west after Bahadur's death, there soon appeared various pretenders to the Shah's throne, causing internal confusion in Gujrat. Remains of Humayun's Din-panah can still be seen in New Delhi, specifically the high walls of the citadel, called the Purana Qila, or the Old Fort. Encyclopedia of World Biography. His cousins also opposed him. Was a city in Delhi—an area rivalled only by Troy Bangladeshi writer, playwright,,. Got the better of his stature 1530, facts about humayun on his deathbed at Agra, Babur is... Government and revenue collection 1530, while an Afghan chief battle of Panipat 1526! A big name for himself Bairam Khan 's support, Humayun was, 1971. Participated in the west who was consistently faithless the age of 23 was Humayan 's access to the on... Bibliography or works cited list besieged Chunar, held by the Afghan chief Sher Shah himself... Khan, the lord of lords at Agra, Babur as “ Dormitory of the previous emperor, Babur Humayun!, on reaching Gaur, Humayun was born in 6 March 1508 - 27 January 1556 was... 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Of 1854, he could not keep his Afghan nobles in check from sectarian bigotry and had ill-will. But all the while, Humayun struggled to defend his dominion online reference entries articles... By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news,,! Due to famine, invading India when Kamran was later arrested, Humayun ’ Tomb!